Empezaré analizando la cuestión, como suelo hacer, mediante el método socrático. Preguntas y respuestas para llegar a una conclusión:
¿Qué es el dinero? ¿Qué es una criptomoneda?
El dinero :
Según la RAE ( Real Academia Española de la lengua ), es “moneda corriente”. Las demás entradas carecen de valor sistemático para este estudio. Así pues tenemos que acudir a la definición de “moneda” y “corriente”. Moneda: Instrumento aceptado como unidad de cuenta, medida de valor y medio de pago. Corriente : “Que está en uso en el momento presente”.
Como bien sabemos las Criptomonedas NO SON un instrumento aceptado como “medio de pago”. Algunos direis : se equivoca usted, sí que es aceptado. Pero no es cierto. Es cierto que en contadísimas ocasiones puntuales se ha realizado acciones de compra-venta mediante moneda virtual (la más usada para este tipo de acciones es la BitCoin), pero cuando se utiliza algo como medio de pago para casos aislados es que no está aceptado de FORMA GENERAL la criptomoneda como sistema de pago. Así pues, el hecho de que usted tenga BitCoins no le asegura que pueda comprar algo concreto por el simple hecho de tenerlas e intentar realizar un pago con ellas.
Así pues fallan los dos axiomas. No es aceptada (insistimos de “manera general”) como instrumento de pago ni es de uso “corriente” pues el “uso corriente” es pagar con moneda y/o billete de curso legal (aceptada por un Banco Central) . Ya sea en metálico o mediante transferencia bancaria .
Primera conclusión : NO ESTAMOS HABLANDO DE DINERO .
Son divisas digitales(no físicas) que están encriptadas (ocultas mediante claves) y se transfieren entre pares (de A a B y viceversa).
No están controladas por ningún banco central . Así pues llegamos a la rápida conclusión de que no tiene valor jurídico. Puedes denunciar ante la policía que te han robado 10 euros que llevabas en un bolsillo. Lo que no puedes denunciar es que te han robado 10 BitCoins porque en el mundo del Derecho no se regula lo que no tiene reconocimiento.
Las criptomonedas pertenecen a un mundo virtual , que no existe. Sería como denunciar que te han quitado una frase que tenías en mente para una dedicatoria. Estaba en tu mente. Solo la conocías tu. Es absurdo legislar sobre lo que no existe porque simple y llanamente : Las critpmonedas NO EXISTEN.
Supuestamente su circulación es segura porque, como decíamos, están encriptadas. ¿Qué es esto? Pues imagine que le digo a usted que el día 30 del mes siguiente le mandaré a un chaval para que le de en mano 500 euros, pero usted debe darle una clave al chaval que solo usted y yo sabemos para que se realice la operación. Eso es la encriptación pero de un modo mucho más complejo. Cada vez más complejo para que mover dinero entre desconocidos sea seguro (seguro y siempre y cuando no seas un programador de encriptación y te sepas los trucos para dejar al descubierto una operación con Criptomonedas) .
Así pues estamos hablando de algo que no es considerado DINERO , que se hace mediante claves entre dos personas y sin ningún reconocimiento legal.
¿Cuáles son las consecuencias de la alta volatilidad de la criptomoneda?. Pues simple y llanamente : Porque no están controladas por un órgano superior (Bancos Centrales). A diferencia de los Bancos Centrales y su relación con la moneda nacional, existe un numero limitado de Criptomoneda y su valor , muy volátil (cambia mucho su valor tanto en aumento como en caída) por ello, dependerá de la Ley de la Oferta y la Demanda. Tampoco le afecta cuestiones como los tipos de interés al moverlas de un usuario a otro, las primas de riesgo, la devaluación, el IPC, etc… Así pues el valor de una BitCoin puede fluctuar entre los 5.000 a los 10.000 euros. Pero tenga usted en cuenta que si pusieramos en valor cualquier producto ante un numero más o menos elevado de usuarios interesados, esos productos también adquirirían un valor dependiendo de la Oferta y la Demanda.
La fluctuación del valor de un bien va en objeto a su oferta y demanda, como decíamos, pero estamos hablando de que aquí se rompen los estándares del comercio al estar hablando de un bien que no existe. Esto supone riesgo para invertir en BitCoins. Aunque todo es según se mire pues imagine que usted compra un BitCoin cuando su valor es 5.000 (aunque pocos se lo venderán cuando su precio sea ese) y en una semana su valor sube a 7.000, enhorabuena, usted ha ganado 2.000 euros. ¿Cuál es el problema de todo esto?. Es lógico que el poseedor de BitCoins es conservador cuando su precio es bajo. No tendría mucho sentido vender para perder. Así pues solo vendería cuando su valor suba a cerca de 10.000. Aunque hay expertos que dicen que es difícil que vuelva a tocar esa cifra. Esto hace que el comprador de BitCoin sea un comprador muy poco “vendedor” y solo vendería cuando se alcanzase precios realmente elevados (más de 12 o 13 mil euros).
Temas legales :
Aún no estando aún regulado el asunto de las criptomonedas (y parece que esa es la intención de los propios usuarios de criptomonedas, pues, si yo tuviera 3-4 bitcoin y a nuestros políticos le da por legislar sobre la materia, me daría por llorar porque el verdadero “invento” de todo esto es , precisamente , no estar regulado )
Pero está claro que esto va a ser regulado tarde o temprano pues el Derecho tiende a regular todas las relaciones humanas para que sean justas. Y , de hecho, al sistema económico internacional no le interesa para nada que se mueva una “ficción de dinero” sin control alguno (que para eso Ellos ya tienen los paraísos físcales en Bahamas o Gibraltar). La ironía de todo esto es que Bancas nacionales operan con paraísos fiscales para ocultar o blanquear grandes fortunas , ahora bien : Al Estado no le interesa que usted maneje dinero sin que el fisco lo sepa. Ni aunque sean pequeñas cantidades : ¿Quién no se aplica con el ejemplo? Ironico ¿no? .
El gran problema del Derecho en este caso es cómo asegurar una operación o establecer unos mínimos para que usted tenga , por ejemplo, garantizado un 20% de sus BitCoins. Evidentemente aquí entraría el Estado a base de impuestos para poder garantizar dichas operaciones, esto es : Las criptomonedas carecerían de su “naturaleza libre” estarían intervenidas y , por ende : perderían su valor fluctuante (solo piense en las Letras del Tesoro, las cuales, evidentemente, están intervenidas y le dará , si acaso, un beneficio de un 2% a 10 años vista, cuando una criptomoneda puede hacer aumentar su valor en un 200% en una semana). Letras del Tesoro, eso sí : pocos fluctuantes pero seguras. ¿A qué voy con todo esto? : Si usted quiere hacer una inversión fuerte hágala en Letras o Bonos del Tesoro, que sí tendrá respaldo jurídico y no fluctuará a la baja, sino al alza y con un porcentaje previamente acordado.
Estoy convencido que en el 50% de las transacciónes en Criptomonedas están siendo usadas para fines poco legales y que , precisamente, el estar nulamente intervenidas es un reclamo a ello.
También estoy convencido que los Estados mundiales se están exprimiendo los cerebros para regular satisfactoriamente este asunto, pero la complejidad es tal que sería como establecer un impuesto por un intercambio de fotos en Whatsapp. Quieren buscar la fórmula jurídica para justificarlo , del mismo modo en que muchos tributos no tienen explicación racional , pero son aplicados bajo las premisas de unas leyes que lo justifican . Justificar la regulación de algo que “no existe” es lo complicado. Es tan absurdo como imponer un impuesto al Sol ( En España pasa ) .
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